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افتراضي Behaviour Management

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Behaviour Management: A Case Study of a Token System


Behaviour management is an ongoing concern and issue for all teachers. New methods of classroom management are always being introduced and trialled. Teachers are assessed by external observers on their ability to manage the behaviour of the students. Lessons can be given a fail grade if the teacher was unable to create a calm and safe learning space for all the students. Teachers need to be seen to be in control of the classroom and children need to be seen as on task and engaging in appropriate school behaviour.

The issue of behaviour management has become more pressing as local governments and local authorities continue to move towards fully inclusive schools. “Pupils displaying inappropriate behaviour are not going to reduce in number; they are going to be part of formal educational culture in the U.K.”(Grundy and Blanford, 1999, p5). As the government continues to close special schools and to put pressure on local mainstream schools to include more and more children with special needs, statements of educational needs and potential behaviour problems, teachers will need to have an improved understanding of how to motivate their students and to promote a climate of positive and socially acceptable behaviours. It is in a well managed and well structured classroom, where behaviour issues will be dealt with quickly and with the least amount of disruption to all learners. Adults will be managing issues and a system or strategy will be in place to deal with all eventualities.


“The ability to properly and appropriately reinforce behaviour is perhaps the most critical element in managing” a primary classroom. (Dowing, Keating, Bennet, 2005, p2) Teachers who are able to reinforce positive behaviours will be teachers who are able to create an environment of praise and success. Children will understand what types of behaviour are acceptable and will be able to learn in a setting that is enabling them to do so. Praise is very important in creating this environment as is trying to limit the attention given to negative behaviours.

“In all too many schools, discipline is conceived of as being largely restrictive and negative” (Elardo, 1997, p3). All schools should have a behaviour policy outlining consequences for children who have behaved in a way that in inappropriate. Time outs, missing play time, withdrawal of privileges or being sent to the head are all common consequences used in primary schools. A system of behaviour management based entirely on consequences and punishments are not conducive to positive learning environments enabling children to learn and succeed. A negative approach to managing children may not help to create the type of school where children and adults can be happy and secure in their learning.

What about a positive behaviour policy? One that stresses the importance of praise and rewards. Teachers should be reminded of the effect of praise and rewarding the behaviours they would like to see more of. Classrooms where praise is used with more regularity and consistency are places where children feel safe and valued. They are able to learn and feel good about themselves. By praising the desired behaviours, teachers can make it very clear what types of behaviours they are looking for. They will not be rewarding inappropriate behaviours by giving them more attention and time than they warrant. “Everyone should be interested in the development and implementation of more humane and sensitive forms of discipline in our schools” (Elardo, 1977, 3). It should be the expectation of all adults working is schools to work towards creating an environment where praise and rewarding desired behaviours becomes the norm and not the exception.

B.F Skinner “believed the goal of psychology should be to find ways to make education enjoyable and effective for all students.”(wikibooks, 2007) He did not advocate punishments as a form of incentive to get children to behave or to learn effectively. Based on his own empirical research, Skinner found punishments to be an ineffective form or managing children’s behaviour. (wikibooks, 2007)

Skinner’s primary contribution to behavioural psychology has been his research into operant conditioning. Simply put, an operant is a behaviour that will affect the environment or those around them and there is a consequence based on the behaviour. Because of the nature or the consequence and how rewarding this consequence might be, it will affect the level of likelihood of the behaviour occurring again. The operant is reinforced if the behaviour happens again. For example, a desired operant in a classroom is for children to put their hand up to ask or answer a question. The teacher would try to reinforce this behaviour by using praise or some other type of reward such as stickers, stars or happy faces. (wikibooks, 2007) Negative behaviours can also be rewarded if they are given attention or a desired reaction occurs. Much like a two year old having a tantrum to be given a biscuit. If the biscuit is given to stop the tantrum, that will become the learnt behaviour.

There are three important characteristics to the use of operant conditioning. These are:
a) the reinforcer –the item or reward used
b) the reinforcement schedule – how often rewards are given
c) The timing of the reinforcements – how quickly after the desired behaviour has happened is the reinforcer given. (wikibooks, 2007)

Reinforcers can be thought of as motivators and should be personal to the child whenever possible. The more highly desired a motivator or a reinforcer is, the greater the likelihood of the reoccurrence of the operant behaviour will be. For example, if a teacher knows a child is very interested in using the computer, time on the computer should be used to motivate a child to complete a task. Based on this logic, David Premack developed the Premack Principle. He states that the less likely behaviour is to occur; a more highly desired reinforcer should be used. Therefore, is a child finds it very difficult to sit at a table to write a sentence, one of their more highly desired objects should be used to reward the task upon completion. (Premack, 1965)

It is important for adults working in school to try not to reward undesired behaviours. Child will often attempt to avoid tasks by wandering or by having a tantrum. It is very important for the wandering or the tantruming not to be rewarded but for praise to be given when the child has returning to work and his behaving in the desired manner.



Timberlake and Allison (1974) developed the response deprivation theory. Teachers can restrict access to highly motivating activities, like games or activities children like to access in their free time unless certain behaviour are preformed first. Once the required behaviour is preformed then access to the desired activity is permitted. Praise should be given to the children who are already engaged in appropriate behaviour so all the children can see good models of behaviour. This will clearly show all children what is expected and what behaviour will be accepted.

Behaviour modification can then be thought of as applying a new set of positive consequences to the desired behaviour. Teachers will attempt to guide the students towards performing the desired appropriate behaviour through the use of praise and positive rewards and extrinsic motivators. Children who are sitting nicely can be praised or given stickers to demonstrate the desired behaviour.

The use of a token system is an effective and simple to manage behaviour in a classroom. A token system is the “visual representation of an incentive chart clarifies the goal to be achieved for the student and showcases the effort put forth in that endeavour.” (Supon, Rowe, 1998, p8) Using some form of tokens or stickers allows children to see and keep track of how close they are to receiving their reinforcer. When combined with praise and immediate feedback, this can be a very powerful way of improving behaviour with some of the more difficult children. It becomes like a contract between the child and the adult, with a pay out being given at the end of a completed task as long as the pay out is desired! Even as adults, we like to know we will be paid when we have done or work.

A token economy involves “systematically rewarding or withdrawing from children token or points, contingent on their display of appropriate or inappropriate behaviour.” (Lerner et all 1995, p 138) If a teacher wants a child to remain seated and knows the child finds this potentially difficult they could reward the child for every 5 minutes they stay at a table with a token, once they have collected 5 tokens in total then they may be allowed some time with their motivating activity. If they leave the table before all 5 tokens are collected then 1 could be removed and re-earned when they return to the task.

Salend (2001) put forward a 10 step approach to establishing a viable token system.
1. work closely with children and their families to establish the rules and the desired behaviours to be rewarded
2. choose tokens based on their durability, cost, ease of use by adults and appeal to the child
3. find out what will reinforce the desired behaviour, carefully select the motivator and establish how many tokens it will take to earn it.
4. get all materials ready to put the system in place, ex charts and tokens
5. arrange the classroom in a way that will enable the children to effectively and efficiently access the token board and motivators
6. explain and show the children how the system will work
7. make sure the system is used consistently by all adults
8. decide what sanctions will be used for displays of inappropriate behaviours
9. continue to monitor and assess the system, making changes to in as necessary, for example changing the types of tokens used or the motivators as children’s interest change
10. begin to phase out the use of the token system when the children no longer need as much support to behaviour appropriately.

The case study

With the knowledge and understanding of the principles for the use of a token system, Key Stage one teachers at Southmead School decided to attempt to put one in place to modify the behaviour of a year 2 child whose behaviour had recently become very challenging. “T” was a 7 year old boy with am educational statement due to a diagnosis of Autism. He had been a very social child, often seeking out the attention on certain, trusted adults. T often worked in very small groups or 1:1 with adults. He had seemingly good relationships with other children and was making fair academic progress. It was felt that some of the adult support he had been given could start to be withdrawn and he could be encouraged to attempt tasks more independently.

However, as the adult support was withdrawn and he was given less 1:1 time, his behaviour began to deteriorate and his ability to complete given tasks was also affected. He began by distracting other children by laughing inappropriately at them or by calling them names. If he did not get a response from adult for this, he would then accuse other children of looking at him in funny ways or laughing at him, the exact type of behaviours he had just shown.
He could also be very manipulative and would try to control his environment. T would ask for something like a red pencil then very quickly change his mind and make new request or demand. He constantly challenged and tried to control the classroom situation by trying to decide where he would sit and who he would work with.

The adults and the children did their best to ignore this behaviour. “T” was not given the attention it appeared he wanted from this behaviour so he became increasingly more aggressive towards adults. If the adult did not react or show emotions to his aggression, he would harm himself. The staff needed to do something to put a halt to this self harming and potentially dangerous behaviour as showing no emotion or limiting his contact with his favourite adults was not having the desired effect on behaviour.

In discussion with adult “T” spoke about how boring his home life was and how he preferred to be at school with adults he liked. At home, he was expected to stay in his room and not to play with toys. He would often ask a favourite support assistant if he could go and live with her. He said “mummy is boring and never wants to do anything with me”. Other more disturbing comments were made regarding his feelings towards his mother.

During these discussions “T” said he loved to hover and his favourite hover was a Henry machine. The decision was made to reward positive, sought after behaviours by allowing “T” to hover different parts of the school for 5 minutes at a time. A small “I am working for” token board was make with happy faces to be used a token on the board. “T” would be rewarded for following teacher direction and staying on task in 5 minute intervals. After every 5 minute interval of remaining on task and following adult direction he would be given 1 happy face token to place on his board. As each token was given, he would be told why the token had been given and how well he had been doing to try and complete the task. When 5 tokens had been given, he could go the cleaner’s cupboard, take out the Henry and hover in nearby spot.

He was told that for any inappropriate behaviour shown, calling others names, laughing at children, shouting, or any physical actions with the intent to hurt, he would be taken to the office. Tokens earned until that point would be taken away. He would remain in the office for 10 minutes then return to class and could then begin to collect tokens from the beginning. When in the office, staff there was told not to engage T in conversation or to even make eye contact with him. This would reinforce the inappropriate behaviour as we strongly believed it was 1:1 adult attention he was seeking.

His mother was informed as to the programme that would be implanted at school and of any changes to T’s behaviour at school. It was also recommended she attempt a similar programme at home to help T settle at meal times and to get ready for bed. However, the school did not receive any feedback as to how the system worked at home.

During the first week of the new system T was removed from class at least once a session. The staff decided to speed up the frequency the tokens where give for appropriate behaviour to see if this helped. Because he had been removed from class it was very difficult for him to earn his motivator and to trust he would get it for good behaviour.

Tokens were now to be given at 3 minute intervals. As the frequency of the tokens was increased, his behaviour began to improve. He was able to earn the hover at least twice in each hour long session, sometimes three times. Once it appeared he understood and trusted all adults would allow him the time with his motivator when 5 tokens had been earned, the staff were able to return to the 5 minute interval for giving tokens. T looked to the adult for praise when the tokens were being given and looked for reassurance he was behaving well. The adult did not need to working with T 1:1 as long as they were close enough to pass a token to him and to tell him he had been doing a good job and had listened well to instruction. This system enabled the teacher to monitor the work of others and to check in with T every few minutes to ensure he was earning tokens.

T’s behaviour continued to improve through the period of time the tokens were used. Eventually tokens could be given every 5 to 10 minutes with him only receiving access to his motivator at the end of every hour long session. The problem now facing the staff is will he need to use such a system for the rest of his time in school? How do we phase out the use of tokens and extrinsic motivators for T.? Also, when he went out of the room to use the hover, he was always accompanied by an adult. So how can we know what the higher level motivator was? Was it the act of using the hover or was it the fact he had an adult all to himself for 5 minutes?
What should the staff do now?

The use of token systems as a form of behaviour modification tool is still very controversial. (Witzel and Mercer, 2003) It is still so controversial because of its reliance on extrinsic motivation to get students to behave in a socially appropriate manner. However, when used properly and carefully, a token system can have a positive impact on children’s behaviour and to the learning environment they are in. In T’s case, he was calmer, less disruptive, more on task and required less adult time. The improvement in his behaviour meant the classroom was a calmer place for all children to be and to learn in. This enabled all children to learn and to make progress.

It is very important when using a token system, in is important the children involved understand why they are being rewarded, what behaviour is being rewarded and that the reward is desired by the child. (Witzer and Mercer, 2003) The motivator can not be too abstract, must be given immediately or as soon as possible after the desired behaviour has occurred and must be given at regular intervals in order for it to be effective.

Tokens should be viewed as a way of giving children an extrinsic motivation to succeed and do well, much like a pay cheque at the end of a week! As children become less reliant on the extrinsic motivators, they can be phased out or given at less regular intervals to increase the levels of intrinsic motivation.

Another vital component to the system is for all adults involved in the children’s learning to use the system and the rules consistently. “Consistency results in less student confusion, increased learning, better education practise and teacher commitment.”(Edwards, 1993, p239) The motivator being used must be given each time when the required number of tokens have been earned. If this does not happen, the children will not trust the system or the adults to reward the hard work they have done.

It is also very important that the adults who will be using the system believe it will have the desired effect. “It is important for the teacher to believe that the behaviourally challenged student can succeed. This certainly does not mean that regression will occur, but that preventative measures are in place to prevent most lapses and relapses. If relapse do occur, teachers should be flexible using various methods to redirect the learner to accomplish the set goals.”(Supon, Rowe, 1998,p 8-9)

The token system worked will with T because the adults were committed and had a high desire to make it work. They really believed he could do well and wanted that for him. The staff adjusted the system when needed however the overlying principle remained the same, reward the desired behaviour and give no attention to undesired behaviour.

Token systems can be a very strong and effective way on managing behaviour in schools whether they are use for individual students or for the whole class. The system used at Southmead with T proved to be very effective and his level of desired behaviour increased considerably towards the end of term. “Any way to motivate a student who is not motivated is a good stat to teaching a student to find intrinsic motivation. I believe that all teachers, especially teachers dealing with students who have emotional and behavioural disorders should be familiar with token economy systems.” (Weeks, p4)

References

Dowing, J, Keating, T, Bennet C (20005) Effective Reinforcement Techinques in Elementary School Physical Education, Physcial
Educators, 62, 3, p114-123
Edwards, C, H, (1993) Classroom discipline and management, New
York: Macmillian Publishing Company

Elardo, R., (1977) “Implementing Behaviour Modification Procedures in
an Elementary School: Problems and Issues” Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, New York

Gundy, W and Blandord, S., (1999), Developing a Culture for Positive
Behaviour Management, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 4,
3 p5-9

Lerner et al (1995) Attention deficit disorders: Assessment and teaching
New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing

Premack, D., (1965) ed Levine D., Reinforcement Theory, Nebraska
symposium on motivation, 13, Lincoln: University of Nebraska

Salend, S, J., (2001) Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and
reflective practises. (4th ed), New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Supon, V., and Rowe, K. A., (1998) Promising Behavioural Intervention
Practises in the Inclusive Classroom. US Department of Education

Timberlake, W., Allison, J., (1974) Response to deprivation: An
empirical approach to instrumental performance. Psychological
Review, 81 p 146-164

Weeks, D., Token Economy Systems for the Classroom Management for
Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders, Western
Michigan University
http://homepages.wmich.edu/~d2weeks/Token%20Economy.htm

Wikibooks http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classro...ederic_Skinner

Witzel, B. S., and Mercer, C. D., (2003) Using rewards to teach students
with disabilities: Implications for motivation, Remedial and Special
Education 24, 88-96

















Behaviour Management: A Case Study of a Token System







Cindy Khalfa









Roehampton University/CENTER]












عرض البوم صور سالم الهزاع   رد مع اقتباس
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Thank you dear brother Salem
We can summarize this research that it is natural that the principle of reward and the use of visual aids with a positive impact on the child's behavior
Thank you once again for this wonderful effort












عرض البوم صور عـــلاء الرحال   رد مع اقتباس
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افتراضي رد: Behaviour Management

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توقيع : سالم الهزاع

سالم الهزاع
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كاتب الموضوع : سالم الهزاع المنتدى : منتدى تعليم ذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة
افتراضي رد: Behaviour Management

Peace, butyoumade ​​methehonortoread thepreviousand currentTruahtkalwaysenrich uswith valuable informationthankyou tomy brother andmy cousinAziz












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